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Gum arabic

Gum arabic 

Gum arabic, also sometimes called acacia gum or acacia powder, is a fibrous product made from the natural hardened sap of two types of wild Acacia trees. Around the world, gum arabic goes by many names, including acacia gum, arabic gum, acacia powder, Senegal gum, Indian gum and others.
Gum Arabic (GA) or Acacia gum is an edible biopolymer obtained as exudates of mature
trees of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal which grow principally in the African region of Sahe
in Sudan. The exudate is a non-viscous liquid, rich in soluble fibers, and its emanation from
the stems and branches usually occurs under stress conditions such as drought, poor soil
fertility, and injury (Williams & Phillips, 2000).
The use of GA dates back to the second millennium BC when the Egyptians used it as an
adhesive and ink. Throughout the time, GA found its way to Europe and it started to be
called "gum arabic" because was exported from Arabian ports.

Gum Arabic is a dried exudate obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia senegal  or closely related species of Acacia . a closely related species. Gum arabic consists mainly of high-molecular weight polysaccharides and their calcium, magnesium, and potassium salts, which on hydrolysis yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. Items of commerce may contain extraneous materials such as sand and pieces of bark which must be removed before use in food. Gum arabic from  is sometimes referred to as gum talha.

Gum Arabic from  is a pale white to orange-brown solid, which breaks with a glassy fracture. The best grades are in the form of whole, spheroidal tears of varying size with a matte surface texture. When ground, the pieces are paler and have a glassy appearance. Gum from other acacia species may not have the characteristic tear shape and are often darker in colour. Gum from  is more brittle than the hard tears of Gum arabic is also available commercially in the form of white to yellowish-white flakes, granules, powder, roller-dried, or spray-dried material.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gum acacia, also called as gum arabic, is a naturally occurring gum extracted from the hardened exudates of plants Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. Commercially available gum acacia is largely sourced from trees in the Sahel region of Africa. It is available in powdered, granular, and spray dried form. It is a complex mixture of sugars and hemicellulose. It is commonly used as an emulsion stabilizer in the food industry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

In granulation, gum acacia is used in an aqueous solution or added dry. It is an exceptional binder as it forms very strong tablets and granules. Disintegration and dissolution, however, are often impeded. In today's market, acacia is used in nutritional supplements. Because of its incompatibilities with a number or substances, large variability, and sporadic supply, however, it is seldom used in the pharmaceutical industry.

Gum Arabic  is derived from exudates of Acacia senegal or Acacia seyal trees. It consists of a mixture of polysaccharides (major component)

plus oligosaccharides and glycoproteins ; however, its composition can vary with its source,

climate and soil. Sudan is the world′s largest producer, followed by many other African countries. It readily dissolves in water to form solutions characterized by low viscosity. This allows its use in various applications . It is used as an emulsifier, thickening agent and flavor stabilizer in both the pharmaceutical and food industries. It is also used in textile, pottery and cosmetics industries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gum Arabic was evaluated for acceptable daily intake for man by the Joint  Expert Committee on Food Additives since 1960 , however, Sudanese people in Western Sudan had been using it for long time without limitations. It is indigestible to both humans and animals, not degraded in the intestine, but fermented in the colon to give short-chain fatty acids, leading to a large range of possible health benefits. One of these benefits is its prebiotic effect. It has been claimed that four week supplementation with Gum Arabic to significant increases in Bifidobacteria, Lactobacteria, and Bacteriodes indicating a prebiotic effect . Other effects include reduction in plasma cholesterol level in animals and humans, anticarcinogenic effect , and anti-oxidant effect, with a protective role against hepatic and cardiac toxicities. In addition to that, it has been claimed that Gum Arabic alleviates effects of chronic renal failure in humans; however, further studies are needed for confirmation.

Gum arabic 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Several epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of dietary fiber, including GA, is associated with beneficial effects on fat metabolism. Dietary fiber promotes satiation and satiety, alter glycaemic index, affects gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and thus helps to manage weight . Leptin promotes weight loss by two different mechanisms. It reduces appetite, and thus food intake, and at the same time increases energy expenditure also dietary fiber was inversely associated with leptin level in young Japanese adults . In addition to that, a study has shown that GA inhibits intestinal glucose absorption via interaction with membrane abundance of SGLT1 in mice GA significantly blunted the increase in body weight, fasting plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations during high fat diet.

Obesity is a well known risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and many other abnormalities, including cancer. These complications depend not only on absolute amount of fat but also on its distribution. Absolute total body fat and adipose tissue distribution are known to be associated with cardiometabolic risk in adult females. At least in theory, Gum Arabic can serve to reduce obesity and therefore prevent associated complications in humans. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of Gum Arabic ingestion on weight, body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females in randomized.

 

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